It is not uncommon for a man to donate his sperm so that it can be frozen and used later for the purpose of conception—often by single women, lesbian couples, couples who want to prevent passing on a genetic disorder that is transmitted via the male’s sperm, or heterosexual couples in which the man has fertility issues (e.g., low sperm count, poor semen quality and lack of sperm).
In many instances, sperm that is donated is used in artificial insemination, a procedure where sperm are injected directly into a woman’s fallopian tubes, uterus or cervix; but donated sperm can also be used in a number of other artificial reproductive technology procedures, including in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Donation takes place through an outside agency or at a doctor’s office. Sperm is examined for infectious diseases and abnormalities prior to being frozen and stored. It is retested prior to being given to the donor recipient.
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